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How does electrical stimulation play a role in pelvic floor rehabilitation?

The application of electrical stimulation in pelvic floor rehabilitation can be traced back to the 1970s. At present, a number of studies have further confirmed that electrical stimulation can effectively solve a variety of pelvic floor dysfunction diseases such as urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, sexual dysfunction, defecation disorder and pelvic floor pain.

What is electrical stimulation?

Electrical stimulation is to stimulate tissues and organs or the central or peripheral nerves that dominate them with pulse current with specific parameters, so as to change the function of tissues and organs.

Action principle of electrical stimulation

Electrical stimulation can help patients who cannot perform Kegel exercise correctly and effectively, patients with weak pelvic floor muscle strength, or patients with pelvic floor muscle hyperactivity.

Mechanism of electrical stimulation

Electrical stimulation enhances muscle strength and endurance

(1) Increase the number of fibers collected during muscle contraction

Electrical stimulation training can improve the activity and feedback of muscle tissue, and lead to the increase of nerve impulse issued by the central nervous system, so as to mobilize more muscle fibers to participate in work and increase contraction strength during muscle contraction.

(2) Change the tissue structure of muscle

The volume and number of nuclei, DNA content and the number of mitochondria in muscle fibers increased significantly, especially in fast muscle fibers.

(3) Supply muscle rich blood

On the unit cross section, the number of capillaries around muscle fibers increases, the capillary density increases, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood increases and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in blood PCO2 decreases, which reduces the concentration of metabolites in tissue fluid around muscle fibers and improves muscle endurance.

(4) Change the recruitment order of muscle motor units

Larger motor neurons are activated first, and more motor units participate in the activity. Therefore, electrical stimulation makes more fast muscles participate in contraction and significantly improve muscle strength.

(5) Long term electrical stimulation can lead to the transformation from type II fiber with fast response and easy fatigue to type I fiber with slow response and anti fatigue.

How does electrical stimulation regulate pelvic nerve

(1) Excite pudendal nerve

Excitation innervates the muscles around the urethra, the pubococcinator muscle and the perineal nerve endings of the above muscles, causing the contraction of the above muscles, so as to achieve the purpose of enhancing muscle strength.

(2) Excite the inferior abdominal nerve and inhibit the pelvic nerve

The nerve impulse generated by pelvic floor electrical stimulation can inhibit the contraction of bladder detrusor through abdominal nerve reflex after central treatment, and alleviate bladder overactivity and urgent urinary incontinence.

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